Greivin Hernández-González, Max Valverde: Evaluación del impacto de las disposiciones de ADPIC+ en el mercado institucional de medicamentos de Costa Rica ["Assessment of the impact of TRIPS-Plus provisions on Costa Rica's institutional drug market"]. CINPE, ICTSD, PAHO/WHO, UNDP: Costa Rica, December 2009.
The present study concludes that the "TRIPS-Plus" standards have certain economic effects including increased prices and thus increased public spending to purchase drugs, and also reduced competition in the generic drug industry. Analysis of the impact of "TRIPS-Plus" standards in Costa Rica is specific to the country since the national Constitution mandates the rights to health, access to medicines and social security. These guaranteed rights have been internalized in a practical way through the universal health service, which is inclusive and protective of consumers' rights. In this regard, the impact assessment in Costa Rica is focused exclusively on the institutional drug market.